References

[1] Pierce, Ryan. Impact of an Epoxy Pipe Lining Material on Distribution System Water Quality.  Masters Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. May 5, 2009, Blacksburg, VA.  https://theses.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05242009-231445/unrestricted/THESIS_Revised.pdf

 

[2] Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. Permeation and Leaching. United States Environmental Protection Agency. [Online] August 2002.  https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/permeationandleaching.pdf

 

[3] Vom Saal, FS et al. Chapel Hill Bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure. Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Aug-Sep;24(2):131-8. Epub 2007 Jul 27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17768031

 

[4] ChemSec. “BISPHENOL A IN RELINING OF WATER PIPES.” pp. 1-6.

 

[5] Satchwill, Trevor. The Impact of Pipe Coatings on Drinking Water Quality. Alberta Water and Wastewater Operators Association. [Online] 2002. http://www.awwoa.ab.ca/pdfs/PipeCoatings.pdf

 

[6] EPP Rapid Research, Rehabilitating Home Water Pipes With Epoxy Coatings, PPRC. December 2008.

 

[7] http://www.curaflow.com/Portals/5/PDFs/BPABulletinFinal.pdf

 

[8] http://crmanage.com/failures-in-epoxy-pipe-liner-applications-in-galvanized-pipe/

 

[9] Robles, Dan, P.E., Community Engineering Services, PLLC.  Epoxy Pipe Liner Failure.  http://www.coengineers.com/epoxy-pipe-liner-failure/

 

[10] http://www.icc-es-pmg.org/Listing_Directory/pdf/PMG-1020.pdf

 

[11] Larry Gillanders, REHABILITATING SMALL DIAMETER PIPING SYSTEMS.  2011 © Copyright protected, ACE DuraFlo® Systems, LLC, pp 1-10.

 

The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standard that Gillianders refers to is called the SSPC SP 6/NACE NO. 3 COMMERCIAL BLAST CLEANING.  This standard states, in part:

 

“This joint standard covers the requirements for commercial blast cleaning of unpainted or painted steel surfaces by the use of abrasives. These requirements include the end condition of the surface and materials and procedures necessary to achieve and verify the end condition.  A commercial blast cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dust, dirt, mill scale, rust, coating, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining as noted.  Random staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each unit area of surface as defined, and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied coating.”

 

The full standard can be purchased at http://www.sspc.org/sspc-sp-6-nace-no-3-commercial-blast-cleaning.html/

 

[12] “Existing piping or rigid tubes must be in good condition, with any cracks or leaks or visible signs of corrosion repaired”

  1. ICC Evaluation Service, ICC-ES Report PMG-1057, Curaflo Engineered Flow Lining Systems®. Reissued 02/2016, pp. 1-6
  2. ICC Evaluation Service, ICC-ES Report PMG-1009, ePIPE® Epoxy Lined Piping System. Reissued 02/2016, pp. 1-7
  3. ICC Evaluation Service, ICC-ES Report PMG-1020, NU FLOW Potable 7000 Water Piping Epoxy Coating Systems. Reissued 02/2015, pp. 1-3

 

[13] ASTM Standard F2831−12: Standard Practice for
Internal Non Structural Epoxy Barrier Coating Material Used In Rehabilitation of Metallic Pressurized Piping Systems. “Section 11.4. The installation instructions shall include a requirement that all leaks in the piping system be repaired prior to coating.”

 

[14] Epoxy Linings – Solvent Free But Not Problem Free, Mark D. Dromgool, Managing Director, KTA-Taylor Australia Pty Ltd, Melbourne Australia http://www.epoxyproducts.com/solventfree.pdf

 

[15] Superior Court of the State of California, Case #: 30-2013-00670683-CU-BC-CJC

 

[16] http://www.coengineers.com/epoxy-pipe-liner-failure/

 

[17] http://www.plumbingengineer.com/content/hot-water-system-temperatures-and-code

 

[18] ICC Evaluation Service, ICC-ES Report PMG-1057, CURAFLO ENGINEERED FLOW LINING SYSTEMS®.  Reissued 02/2016, pp. 1-6

 

[19] http://www.icc-es.org/Help/about.shtml

 

[20] http://www.icc-es.org/Reports/pdf_files/load_file.cfm?file_type=pdf&file_name=PMG-1009.pdf

 

[21] http://www.aceduraflo.com/sites/default/files/DeptOfDefense.pdf

 

[22] http://crmanage.com/failures-in-epoxy-pipe-liner-applications-in-galvanized-pipe/

 

[23] Robles, Dan, P.E., Community Engineering Services, PLLC.  Epoxy Pipe Liner Failure.  http://www.coengineers.com/epoxy-pipe-liner-failure/

 

[24] http://www.nassco.org/publications/specs/cipp.pdf

 

[25] http://www.nassco.org/publications/specs/cipp.pdf, Section 1 General, Subsection B.

 

[26] http://www.nassco.org/publications/specs/cipp.pdf, Section 3.4 Finish, Subsections C and D.

 

[27] Das, Susan, Bayat, Alireza, Gay, Leon, Salimi, Mahmoud, Matthews, John. 2016 “A comprehensive review of the challenges of cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) installations.” In: Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA.  IWA Publishing.

 

[28] http://www.nassco.org/publications/specs/cipp.pdf, Section 3.1 Construction Requirements, Subsection F and Section 3.7 Final Acceptance, Subsection B.

 

[29] http://www.nassco.org/publications/specs/cipp.pdf, Section 3.6 Testing of Installed CIPP

 

[30] Das, Susan, Bayat, Alireza, Gay, Leon, Salimi, Mahmoud, Matthews, John. 2016 “A comprehensive review of the challenges of cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) installations.” In: Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA.  IWA Publishing.

 

[31] Donaldson, B. M. 2009 Environmental implications of cured-in- place pipe rehabilitation technology. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2123 (1), 172–179. http://doi.org/10.3141/2123-19

 

[32] Donaldson, B. M. 2009 Environmental implications of cured-in- place pipe rehabilitation technology. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2123 (1), 172–179. http://doi.org/10.3141/2123-19

 

[33] Das, Susan, Bayat, Alireza, Gay, Leon, Salimi, Mahmoud, Matthews, John. 2016 “A comprehensive review of the challenges of cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) installations.” In: Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA.  IWA Publishing.

 

[34] Pennington, R. A., Gersley, K. A., Zach, A. L. & George, J. T. 2005. Laterals and manholes: the importance of getting a good seal. In: Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 2005 (11), pp. 4648–4658.

 

[35] Wade, M. G. & Johnson, G. A. 2007 Private sewer lateral rehabilitation: the last frontier. In: Proceedings of the 2007 No-Dig Conference and Exhibition, April 16–19, NASTT, San Diego, CA, Paper B–4–03–1.

 

[36] Das, Susan, Bayat, Alireza, Gay, Leon, Salimi, Mahmoud, Matthews, John. 2016 “A comprehensive review of the challenges of cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) installations.” In: Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA.  IWA Publishing.

 

 

Additional References:

 

Bourbour Ajdari, E. 2016 Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emission During Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) Sewer Pipe Rehabilitation. PhD Thesis, University of New Orleans, Louisiana.

 

http://www.perma-liner.com/uploads/perma-lateral-pdf/Perma-Lateral%20Lining%20Specifications.pdf

 

Tabor, M.L., Newman, D., Whelton, A.J. (2014). ”Stormwater Chemical Contamination Caused by Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) Infrastructure Rehabilitation Activities.” Environ. Sci. Technol. In press.

 

Whelton, A., Salehi, M., Tabor, M., Donaldson, B. & Estaba, J. 2012 Impact of infrastructure coating materials on storm-water quality: review and experimental study. Journal of Environmental Engineering 139 (5), 746–756.

 

For additional visual evidence, we suggest readers watch “Failures Of Epoxy Liner in Domestic Potable Water Systems” online at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZX498R3L3zA